od - dump files in octal and other formats

1 000 000

OD(1) User Commands OD(1)

od - dump files in octal and other formats

od [OPTION]... [FILE]...
od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]
od --traditional [OPTION]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [+][LABEL][.][b]]

Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE to
standard output. With more than one FILE argument, concatenate them in
the listed order to form the input. With no FILE, or when FILE is -,
read standard input.

All arguments to long options are mandatory for short options.

-A, --address-radix=RADIX
decide how file offsets are printed

-j, --skip-bytes=BYTES
skip BYTES input bytes first

-N, --read-bytes=BYTES
limit dump to BYTES input bytes

-S, --strings[=BYTES]
output strings of at least BYTES graphic chars

-t, --format=TYPE
select output format or formats

-v, --output-duplicates
do not use * to mark line suppression

-w, --width[=BYTES]
output BYTES bytes per output line

accept arguments in traditional form

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

Traditional format specifications may be intermixed; they accumulate:
-a same as -t a, select named characters, ignoring high-order bit

-b same as -t o1, select octal bytes

-c same as -t c, select ASCII characters or backslash escapes

-d same as -t u2, select unsigned decimal 2-byte units

-f same as -t fF, select floats

-i same as -t dI, select decimal ints

-l same as -t dL, select decimal longs

-o same as -t o2, select octal 2-byte units

-s same as -t d2, select decimal 2-byte units

-x same as -t x2, select hexadecimal 2-byte units

If first and second call formats both apply, the second format is
assumed if the last operand begins with + or (if there are 2 operands)
a digit. An OFFSET operand means -j OFFSET. LABEL is the
pseudo-address at first byte printed, incremented when dump is pro‐
gressing. For OFFSET and LABEL, a 0x or 0X prefix indicates hexadeci‐
mal; suffixes may be . for octal and b for multiply by 512.

TYPE is made up of one or more of these specifications:

a named character, ignoring high-order bit

c ASCII character or backslash escape

signed decimal, SIZE bytes per integer

floating point, SIZE bytes per integer

octal, SIZE bytes per integer

unsigned decimal, SIZE bytes per integer

hexadecimal, SIZE bytes per integer

SIZE is a number. For TYPE in doux, SIZE may also be C for
sizeof(char), S for sizeof(short), I for sizeof(int) or L for
sizeof(long). If TYPE is f, SIZE may also be F for sizeof(float), D
for sizeof(double) or L for sizeof(long double).

RADIX is d for decimal, o for octal, x for hexadecimal or n for none.
BYTES is hexadecimal with 0x or 0X prefix, and may have a multiplier
suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB
1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y. Adding
a z suffix to any type displays printable characters at the end of each
output line. Option --string without a number implies 3; option
--width without a number implies 32. By default, od uses -A o -t oS

Written by Jim Meyering.

Report od bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page:
General help using GNU software:
Report od translation bugs to

Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later .
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

The full documentation for od is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and od programs are properly installed at your site, the com‐

info coreutils 'od invocation'

should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.12.197-032bb September 2011 OD(1)