nc — arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens

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NC(1) BSD General Commands Manual NC(1)

nc — arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens

nc [-46DdhklnrStUuvzC] [-i interval] [-P proxy_username] [-p source_port]
[-s source_ip_address] [-T ToS] [-w timeout] [-X proxy_protocol] [-x
proxy_address[:port]] [hostname] [port[s]]

The nc (or netcat) utility is used for just about anything under the sun
involving TCP or UDP. It can open TCP connections, send UDP packets,
listen on arbitrary TCP and UDP ports, do port scanning, and deal with
both IPv4 and IPv6. Unlike telnet(1), nc scripts nicely, and separates
error messages onto standard error instead of sending them to standard
output, as telnet(1) does with some.

Common uses include:

· simple TCP proxies
· shell-script based HTTP clients and servers
· network daemon testing
· a SOCKS or HTTP ProxyCommand for ssh(1)
· and much, much more

The options are as follows:

-4 Forces nc to use IPv4 addresses only.

-6 Forces nc to use IPv6 addresses only.

-D Enable debugging on the socket.

-d Do not attempt to read from stdin.

-h Prints out nc help.

-i interval
Specifies a delay time interval between lines of text sent and
received. Also causes a delay time between connections to multi‐
ple ports.

-k Forces nc to stay listening for another connection after its cur‐
rent connection is completed. It is an error to use this option
without the -l option.

-l Used to specify that nc should listen for an incoming connection
rather than initiate a connection to a remote host. It is an
error to use this option in conjunction with the -p, -s, or -z
options. Additionally, any timeouts specified with the -w option
are ignored.

-n Do not do any DNS or service lookups on any specified addresses,
hostnames or ports.

-P proxy_username
Specifies a username to present to a proxy server that requires
authentication. If no username is specified then authentication
will not be attempted. Proxy authentication is only supported
for HTTP CONNECT proxies at present.

-p source_port
Specifies the source port nc should use, subject to privilege
restrictions and availability. It is an error to use this option
in conjunction with the -l option.

-q after EOF on stdin, wait the specified number of seconds and then
quit. If seconds is negative, wait forever.

-r Specifies that source and/or destination ports should be chosen
randomly instead of sequentially within a range or in the order
that the system assigns them.

-S Enables the RFC 2385 TCP MD5 signature option.

-s source_ip_address
Specifies the IP of the interface which is used to send the pack‐
ets. It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the
-l option.

-T ToS Specifies IP Type of Service (ToS) for the connection. Valid
values are the tokens “lowdelay”, “throughput”, “reliability”, or
an 8-bit hexadecimal value preceded by “0x”.

-C Send CRLF as line-ending

-t Causes nc to send RFC 854 DON'T and WON'T responses to RFC 854 DO
and WILL requests. This makes it possible to use nc to script
telnet sessions.

-U Specifies to use Unix Domain Sockets.

-u Use UDP instead of the default option of TCP.

-v Have nc give more verbose output.

-w timeout
If a connection and stdin are idle for more than timeout seconds,
then the connection is silently closed. The -w flag has no
effect on the -l option, i.e. nc will listen forever for a con‐
nection, with or without the -w flag. The default is no timeout.

-X proxy_protocol
Requests that nc should use the specified protocol when talking
to the proxy server. Supported protocols are “4” (SOCKS v.4),
“5” (SOCKS v.5) and “connect” (HTTPS proxy). If the protocol is
not specified, SOCKS version 5 is used.

-x proxy_address[:port]
Requests that nc should connect to hostname using a proxy at
proxy_address and port. If port is not specified, the well-known
port for the proxy protocol is used (1080 for SOCKS, 3128 for

-z Specifies that nc should just scan for listening daemons, without
sending any data to them. It is an error to use this option in
conjunction with the -l option.

hostname can be a numerical IP address or a symbolic hostname (unless the
-n option is given). In general, a hostname must be specified, unless
the -l option is given (in which case the local host is used).

port[s] can be single integers or ranges. Ranges are in the form nn-mm.
In general, a destination port must be specified, unless the -U option is
given (in which case a socket must be specified).

It is quite simple to build a very basic client/server model using nc.
On one console, start nc listening on a specific port for a connection.
For example:

$ nc -l 1234

nc is now listening on port 1234 for a connection. On a second console
(or a second machine), connect to the machine and port being listened on:

$ nc 1234

There should now be a connection between the ports. Anything typed at
the second console will be concatenated to the first, and vice-versa.
After the connection has been set up, nc does not really care which side
is being used as a ‘server’ and which side is being used as a ‘client’.
The connection may be terminated using an EOF (‘^D’).

The example in the previous section can be expanded to build a basic data
transfer model. Any information input into one end of the connection
will be output to the other end, and input and output can be easily cap‐
tured in order to emulate file transfer.

Start by using nc to listen on a specific port, with output captured into
a file:

$ nc -l 1234 > filename.out

Using a second machine, connect to the listening nc process, feeding it
the file which is to be transferred:

$ nc 1234

After the file has been transferred, the connection will close automati‐

It is sometimes useful to talk to servers “by hand” rather than through a
user interface. It can aid in troubleshooting, when it might be neces‐
sary to verify what data a server is sending in response to commands
issued by the client. For example, to retrieve the home page of a web

$ echo -n "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n" | nc 80

Note that this also displays the headers sent by the web server. They
can be filtered, using a tool such as sed(1), if necessary.

More complicated examples can be built up when the user knows the format
of requests required by the server. As another example, an email may be
submitted to an SMTP server using:

$ nc [-C] localhost 25 HELO
Body of email.

It may be useful to know which ports are open and running services on a
target machine. The -z flag can be used to tell nc to report open ports,
rather than initiate a connection. For example:

$ nc -z 20-30
Connection to 22 port [tcp/ssh] succeeded!
Connection to 25 port [tcp/smtp] succeeded!

The port range was specified to limit the search to ports 20 - 30.

Alternatively, it might be useful to know which server software is run‐
ning, and which versions. This information is often contained within the
greeting banners. In order to retrieve these, it is necessary to first
make a connection, and then break the connection when the banner has been
retrieved. This can be accomplished by specifying a small timeout with
the -w flag, or perhaps by issuing a "QUIT" command to the server:

$ echo "QUIT" | nc 20-30
Protocol mismatch.
220 IMS SMTP Receiver Version 0.84 Ready

Open a TCP connection to port 42 of, using port 31337 as
the source port, with a timeout of 5 seconds:

$ nc -p 31337 -w 5 42

Open a UDP connection to port 53 of

$ nc -u 53

Open a TCP connection to port 42 of using as
the IP for the local end of the connection:

$ nc -s 42

Create and listen on a Unix Domain Socket:

$ nc -lU /var/tmp/dsocket

Connect to port 42 of via an HTTP proxy at,
port 8080. This example could also be used by ssh(1); see the
ProxyCommand directive in ssh_config(5) for more information.

$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect 42

The same example again, this time enabling proxy authentication with
username “ruser” if the proxy requires it:

$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect -Pruser 42

cat(1), ssh(1)

Original implementation by *Hobbit* ⟨⟩.
Rewritten with IPv6 support by Eric Jackson ⟨⟩.

UDP port scans will always succeed (i.e. report the port as open), ren‐
dering the -uz combination of flags relatively useless.

BSD February 28, 2013 BSD